Emotional and Behavioral Competence Children need care that promotes positive emotional health and well-being and that supports their overall mental health, including a positive sense of self, as well as the ability to cope with stressful situations, temper emotional arousal, overcome fears, and accept disappointments and frustrations. Social Competence Children who possess basic social competence are able to develop and maintain positive relationships with peers and adults Semrud-Clikeman, Cognitive Competence Cognitive competence encompasses the skills and capacities needed at each age and stage of development to succeed in school and in the world at large.
Parenting Knowledge Parenting is multidimensional. Knowledge of Child Development Parent Voices [Some parents recognized the need for education related to providing care for young children. Parent Voices [Some parents recognized the need for comprehensive parenting education.
Knowledge of Parenting Practices Parents' knowledge of how to meet their children's basic physical e. Knowledge of Supports, Services, and Systems Little is known about parents' knowledge of various supports—such as educators, social workers, health care providers, and extended family—and the relationship between their conceptions of the roles of these supports and their use of them. Parenting Attitudes Although considerable discussion has focused on attitudes and beliefs broadly, less research attention has been paid to the effects of parenting attitudes on parents' interactions with young children or on parenting practices.
Parent Voices [One parent described differences between men and women in parenting roles. Parenting Practices Parenting practices have been studied extensively, with some research showing strong associations between certain practices and positive child outcomes. Practices to Promote Physical Health and Safety Parents influence the health and safety of their children in many ways. Practices to Promote Emotional and Behavioral Competence and Social Competence Fundamental to children's positive development is the opportunity to grow up in an environment that responds to their emotional needs Bretherton, and that enables them to develop skills needed to cope with basic anxieties, fears, and environmental challenges.
Practices to Stimulate Cognitive Development As explained in the National Research Council report How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School , individuals learn by actively encountering events, objects, actions, and concepts in their environments. Contingent Responsiveness of Parents Broadly defined, contingent responsiveness denotes an adult's behavior that occurs immediately after and in response to a child's behavior and is related to the child's focus of attention Roth, Organization of the Home Environment and the Importance of Routines Observational research suggests that children's development is enhanced by parents' use of predictable and orderly routines.
Behavioral Discipline Practices Parental guidance or discipline is an essential component of parenting. SUMMARY The following key points emerged from the committee's examination of core parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices: Parental knowledge of child development is positively associated with quality parent-child interactions and the likelihood of parents' engagement in practices that promote their children's healthy development. Research also indicates that parents with knowledge of evidence-based parenting practices, especially those related to promoting children's physical health and safety, are more likely than those without such knowledge to engage in those practices.
Although there is currently limited empirical evidence on how parents' knowledge of available services affects uptake of those services, parenting, and child outcomes, parents with this knowledge are likely better equipped to access services for their families. As mediators of the relationship between knowledge and practice, parental attitudes about the roles of parents and others in the raising of young children, as well as about specific practices e.
The committee found that empirical studies on parenting attitudes do not allow for the identification of core parenting attitudes consistently associated with positive child outcomes. However, the available evidence points to a need for taking parents' attitudes and beliefs into consideration in the design and implementation of programs and services in order to improve their reach. The committee identified several parenting practices that are associated with improvements in the four domains introduced at the beginning of this chapter physical health and safety, emotional and behavioral competence, social competence, and cognitive competence :.
Much of the existing research is focused on mothers. A lack of research exists on how parenting knowledge, attitudes, and practices may differ for fathers and other caregivers e. With regard to practices that promote children's cognitive skills, research to date has examined primarily the effect of parenting on children's language and literacy skills. Research on how parenting affects other cognitive domains, such as math and problem-solving skills, would deepen understanding of the relationship between parenting and children's cognitive development.
The Integration of a Child into a Social World. Richards MP, editor. Ainsworth MS, Bowlby J. An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist. Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Nutrition and physical activity: Randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index. BMC Public Health. American Academy of Pediatrics. Guidance for effective discipline. Policy statement: Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. American Psychological Association.
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Journal of Urban Health. Parenting and child psychosocial adjustment in single-parent African American families: Is community context important? Behavior Therapy. Armstrong K, Morris J. Promoting secure attachment, maternal mood and child health in a vulnerable population: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health.
Maternal body mass index and the risk of fetal death, stillbirth, and infant death: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association. Parent-child interaction therapy for disruptive behavior in children with mental retardation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Baker CE. African American fathers' contributions to children's early academic achievement: Evidence from two-parent families from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort.
Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin. Barbarin O, Jean-Baptiste E. The relation of dialogic, control, and racial socialization practices to early academic and social competence: Effects of gender, ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Barber BK. Barber BK, editor. Reintroducing parental psychological control.
Determinants of parental discipline practices: A national sample from primary care practices. Clinical Pediatrics. Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in children from birth to three years old. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The Baby Elmo Program: Improving teen father-child interactions within juvenile justice facilities. Children and Youth Services Review.
Education about crying in normal infants is associated with a reduction in pediatric emergency room visits for crying complaints. Maternal verbal sensitivity and child language comprehension. Infant Behavior and Development. Early Head Start: Factors associated with caregiver knowledge of child development, parenting behavior, and parenting stress. Maternal attitudes and knowledge of childrearing: Associations with family and child outcomes. Child Development. Benigno J, Ellis S.
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Saracho ON, Spodek B, editors. Charolotte, NC: Information Age; Do parents count? The socialization of children's numeracy. Early identification and intervention for behavior problems in primary care: A comparison of two abbreviated versions of parent-child interaction therapy. Correlates and consequences of spanking and verbal punishment for low-income white, African American, and Mexican American toddlers. Preschool children's classification skills and a multicultural education intervention to promote acceptance of ethnic diversity.
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Trends in resource utilization by children with neurological impairment in the United States inpatient health care system: A repeat cross-sectional study. PLoS Medicine. Parenthood in the twenty-first century: African American grandparents as surrogate parents. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. Bigelow AE.
Infants' sensitivity to familiar imperfect contigencies in social interaction. Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Can parent training alter parent practice and reduce conduct problems in ethnic minority children? A randomized controlled trial.
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Family home care providers' and parents' beliefs and practices concerning mathematics with young children. Early Child Development and Care.
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Interactive behaviors of ethnic minority mothers and their premature infants. Prevention for preschoolers at high risk for conduct problems: Immediate outcomes on parenting practices and child social competence. Factors underlying parental decisions about combination childhood vaccinations including MMR: A systematic review. Bruner J. The Transition from Prelinguistic to Linguistic Communication. Golinkoff RM, editor. The acquisition of pragmatic commitments.
Bryant-Stephens T, Li Y. Community asthma education program for parents of urban asthmatic children. Journal of the National Medical Association. Postnatal parental education for optimizing infant general health and parent-infant relationships. European American and African American mothers' beliefs about parenting and disciplining infants: A mixed-method analysis. Parenting: Science and Practice. Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Parental interactions with Latino infants: Variation by country of origin and English proficiency.
Fathers' influence on their children's cognitive and emotional development: From toddlers to pre-K. Applied Development Science. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. The ecology of father-child relationships: An expanded model. Journal of Family Theory and Review. A parent-focused intervention to reduce infant obesity risk behaviors: A randomized trial. Cannon J, Ginsburg HP. Early Education and Development. Systematic review of sedentary behavior and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: An update.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Cassidy J. London, UK: Rough Guides; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding Report Card. Parent Information. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury. Parent-child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
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Integrating a parenting intervention with routine primary health care: A cluster randomized trial. Cheah CS, Chirkov V. Parents' personal and cultural beliefs regarding young children: A cross-cultural study of aboriginal and Euro-Canadian mothers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Child Trends Databank. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends; a. Bethesda, MD: Child Trends; b. Gender and racial differences in the looking and talking behaviors of mothers and their 3-year-old prematurely born children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing.
Maternal empathy and changes in mothers' permissiveness as predictors of toddlers' early social competence with peers: A parenting intervention study. Journal of Child and Family Studies. Chung-Park MS. Knowledge, opinions, and practices of infant sleep position among parents. Military Medicine. Claessens A, Engel M.
How important is where you start? Early mathematics knowledge and later school success. Teachers College Record. Clark C. Where and how to draw the line between reasonable corporal punishment and abuse. Law and Contemporary Problems. An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Review of Psychology. Maternal confidence, knowledge, and quality of mother-toddler interactions: A preliminary study. Infant Mental Health Journal. Conway A, Stifter CA. Longitudinal antecedents of executive function in preschoolers.
Corrarino JE. Health literacy and women's health: Challenges and opportunities. Cox MJ, Paley B. Families as systems. Mailed intervention to promote sun protection of children: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. African American and Caucasian preschoolers' use of decontextualized language: Literate language features in oral narratives.
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. A population-level approach to promoting healthy child development and school success in low-income, urban neighborhoods: Impact on parenting and child conduct problems. Do specific parenting practices and related parental self-efficacy associate with physical activity and screen time among primary schoolchildren?
A cross-sectional study in Belgium. BMJ Open. Conduct problems, IQ, and household chaos: A longitudinal multi-informant study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Influence of family environment on children's oral health: A systematic review. Jornal de Pediatria. Bicycle helmet use among children in the United States: The effects of legislation, personal and household factors. Journal of Safety Research.
Excess fruit juice consumption by preschool-aged children is associated with short stature and obesity. Television viewing and television in bedroom associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool children. Low parental literacy is associated with worse asthma care measures in children. Ambulatory Pediatrics. Black mothers' perceptions about urban neighborhood safety and outdoor play for their preadolescent daughters. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research.
The relationship of parental knowledge to the development of extremely low birth weight infants. Journal of Early Intervention. New York: Oxford University Press; An evaluation and comparison of time-out procedures with and without release contingencies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Effects of a reduced time-out interval on compliance with the time-out instruction. Preventing childhood unintentional injuries—what works? A literature review. Injury Prevention. Internet guidance on time out: Inaccuracies, omissions, and what to tell parents instead. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. The contribution of parenting practices and parent emotion factors in children at risk for disruptive behavior disorders.
Videotape increases parent knowledge about poliovirus vaccines and choices of polio vaccination schedules. Contingent social responsiveness, family ecology, and infant communicative competence. The relationship among television watching, physical activity, and body composition of young children. Durbin DR. Child passenger safety. Parental use of corporal punishment in Europe: Intersection between public health and policy. Durkin D. One particularly fascinating question is whether our language shapes the way we perceive the world and if so, how? In particular, can there be thinking without language?
Such questions have fascinated people for thousands of years, but only in recent times have researchers been in a position to examine them scientifically and to investigate how languages can reflect or reinforce particular ways of looking at the world and the world-views of particular cultures. Linguists document the remarkable diversity of means of expression employed in the languages of the world.
At the same time, though, researchers have come to understand that many of the features of language are universal, both because there are universal aspects to human experience and because language has a built-in biological basis. This latter subject belongs to the subfield called neurolinguistics, which studies how language is realized in the human brain. The connection can be revealed through experiment or by studying the way brain damage can lead to disruptions of language function in disorders like dyslexia or aphasia.
Or it can be revealed in more subtle ways, like the slips of the tongue that people make, which can shed light on the mental circuitry of language in something like the way a computer malfunction can shed light on how it is programmed or how its hardware was designed. It can also be revealed by the changes that can take place in language and by the limitations which make some changes impossible. The social life of language begins with the smallest and most informal interactions.
Every conversation is a social transaction, governed by rules that determine how sentences are put together into larger discourses—stories, jokes, or whatever—and how participants take turns speaking and let each other know that they are attending to what is being said. The organization of these interactions is the subject of the subfield called discourse analysis.
Another, related, area of study concerns the literary uses of language, which involve the particular rules that shape poetic structure or the organization of forms like the sonnet or the novel, and which often make special use of devices like metaphor—though to be sure, linguists have discovered too that metaphor and figurative language are essential elements of everyday forms of speech. At a larger level, the field of sociolinguistics is also concerned with the way the divisions of societies into social classes and ethnic, religious, and racial groups are often mirrored by linguistic differences.
Of particular interest here, too, is the way language is used differently by men and women. In most parts of the world, communities use more than one language, and the phenomenon of bilingualism or multilingualism has a special interest for linguists. Multilingualism raises particular psychological questions: How do two or more languages coexist within an individual mind?
How do bilingual individuals decide when to switch from one language to another? It also raises questions at the level of the community, where the question of which language to use is determined by tacit understandings, and sometimes by official rules and regulations that may invoke difficult questions about the relation of language to nationality. In many nations, including the US, there are currently important debates about establishing an official language. Multilingual communities are interesting to linguists for another reason: Languages that come into contact can influence each other in various ways, sometimes converging in grammar or other features.
Under certain social conditions, a mix of languages can give rise to 'new' languages called pidgins and creoles, which have a particular interest for linguists because of the way they shed light on language structure and function. Often, though, the result when languages come into contact is that one becomes dominant at the expense of the other, especially when the contact pits a widely used language of a powerful community against a local or minority language. Modern communications have accelerated this process, to the point where the majority of the languages currently used in the world are endangered, and may disappear within a few generations—a situation that causes linguists concerns that go beyond the purely academic.
Linguistics can have applications wherever language itself becomes a matter of practical concern. Strictly speaking, then, the domain of applied linguistics is not a single field or subfield, but can range from the research on multilingualism the teaching and learning of foreign languages to studies of neurolinguistic disorders like aphasia and of various speech and hearing defects. It includes work in the area of language planning, like the efforts to devise writing systems for languages in the post-colonial world, and the efforts to standardize terminologies for various technical domains, or to revitalize endangered languages.
Examples of the applications of linguistics can be multiplied indefinitely. The techniques of discourse analysis have been applied to the problem of avoiding air accidents due to miscommunication and to the problems of communication between members of different ethnic groups. In rare emergency situations, the agency or recipient may have to rely on an LEP person's family members or other persons whose language skills and competency in interpreting have not been established.
Proper agency or recipient planning and implementation is important in order to ensure that those situations rarely occur. Does the Executive Order apply to federally conducted activities overseas or to foreign recipients of federal financial assistance? The Department of Justice has determined that EO applies only within the United States and its territories and does not apply extraterritorially.
However, agencies that conduct activities overseas must still submit a plan for making their domestic activities accessible to people who are limited English proficient. That plan should indicate that the agency conducts federal activities abroad, but that DOJ has determined that the EO does not apply to those activities. Similarly, agencies that provide federal financial assistance abroad and domestically must still create guidance for their domestic recipients, and may include a statement in the guidance indicating that the guidance does not apply extraterritorially.
Does Executive Order require that bids be let in languages other than English?
Generally, current practice with regard to announcing federal government contracts and grants would not be altered under the Executive Order. In determining what is required, the focus of the analysis in this situation is on the first factor — the number or proportion of eligible LEP persons. Except, perhaps, in territories, it is reasonable to expect that the number or proportion of eligible contract or grant recipients who are LEP and are themselves attempting to find and respond to announcements of grants and contracts is negligible.
If a federal agency contracts with a private or other entity to conduct certain activities of the agency, does the Executive Order apply to the activities of the contractor? When a different entity conducts certain activities for the federal agency, then the Executive Order applies to the entity's activities. The agency should ensure that the entity knows the general standards for LEP access and applies the agency's plan to the activities it is conducting on behalf of the agency. An agency cannot avoid its obligations by contracting them out.
What does Executive Order require for federal employment practices? For jobs where agencies determine English is not essential, agencies should apply the four factors. For more information on Executive Order , please contact the Federal Coordination and Compliance Section, The following series of questions and answers were developed to address several topics raised by state courts but not addressed directly by the letter. Question 1: Does the definition of "court" include administrative hearing proceedings? Do the same requirements apply to the executive branch agencies responsible for conducting those hearings?
The standards set forth in the Letter are applicable to all proceedings conducted by state courts including those considered administrative in nature. Although the Letter does not specifically address administrative adjudicative hearings conducted by state or local executive branch agencies that receive federal financial assistance, the reasoning would generally extend to them. Is it acceptable to use a close-circuit network and videoconferencing to provide interpreter services when local certified or competent interpreters are not available?
Remote interpreting is an appropriate and reasonable alternative in a variety of circumstances.
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Whether remote interpreting is a reasonable method to provide court language assistance depends on those circumstances, including, for example, whether other participants to the proceeding or program are appearing remotely, the availability of qualified in-person interpreters, the quality of the remote technology, the nature and duration of the proceeding or communication, the relative quality, and cost and delay associated with the in-person and remote interpreters.
This process also presumes that the second person has a competence in both languages. Is this process an example of how this situation could be addressed or is it required? It is not, therefore, a requirement. What is required is that courts have an appropriate system in place to determine the qualifications of an interpreter who is not certified because the needed exams have not been devised in the relevant language. Question 4: Can DOJ provide additional guidance concerning what is meant by "qualified interpreters" for handling interpretation in a court's clerk's office or other court-related activities outside of the courtroom?
Determining the appropriate qualifications needed for providing language support outside of the courtroom depends on the nature, purpose, and context of the communication. When an interpreter is called for, the needed skills and qualifications will vary according to the particular context. For example, the interpreter may not need to provide simultaneous interpretation in some office settings. And in other settings, such as a file room, the interaction may not require lengthy or complex conversations such that a telephone-based interpreter may suffice.
On the other hand, interviews conducted by a monolingual court psychologist should be supported with highly skilled professional interpreters. Question 5: If there are not qualified interpreters in less frequently used languages to assist in the provision of court-ordered mandatory services e.
Courts should diligently seek to provide language access to all LEP persons in such settings utilizing both qualified bilingual staff as well as interpreter assistance, not only as a civil rights matter, but also in the interests of the judicial system and in order to accomplish the goals of the mandatory services.
Depending on the circumstances, waiving participation in mandatory court programs for LEP parties may be an acceptable interim measure under Title VI when qualified interpreters are not reasonably available, appropriate alternatives are not reasonable, and affected individuals are not harmed by the waiver.
Question 6: Footnote 6 in Section III of the Guidance states that only funds directed to the particular program or activity that is out of compliance would be terminated. Are there any other consequences for noncompliance other than losing Federal funds directed to the program that is out of compliance? If a court is engaging in national origin discrimination prohibited by Title VI, DOJ or another federal funding entity might first issue formal findings of such civil rights violations. If voluntary compliance cannot then be secured, DOJ could take further action, such as seeking equitable relief in court.
Question 7: Can DOJ reconcile the differing requirements for providing court interpreters in federal courts and in the state courts? While Constitutional due process principles can be used in support of interpreter requirements in both federal and state courts, Title VI and implementing regulations do not apply to the federal courts because they are not recipients of federal financial assistance, being instead a branch of the federal government. Further, Executive Order also is not applicable since it applies only to the executive branch.
The authority to supervise the federal courts with respect to language access resides instead with the Supreme Court and Congress. Lau v. Nichols , U. Does the failure by a recipient to provide meaningful access to LEP persons constitute national origin discrimination? See, e. Hagan , F. Palmer , F. Ohio holding that allegations of failure to ensure bilingual services in a food stamp program could constitute a violation of Title VI.
Do Department of Justice DOJ Title VI implementing regulations prohibit both intentional discrimination and practices that have a discriminatory impact? Do other federal agencies have Title VI regulations that prohibit both intentional discrimination and practices that have a discriminatory impact? Why must my agency designate a primary contact person for services to limited English proficient LEP persons in my agency?
What are my agency's responsibilities with respect to providing Federal Financial Assistance?
Would it be helpful to have agreements with other federal agencies, subcomponents, field or district offices to provide language assistance services? What are resources that might be helpful in creating, modifying, or updating a Federal agency's Language Access Implementation Plan, Policy Directives or Procedures? Why is it important to monitor the effectiveness of your Language Access Implementation Plan? Why is it important to publish your Language Access Policy Directives or inform members of the public about the availability of language assistance services? Why is it important for Federal agencies to consult with or seek input from non-governmental organizations such as faith-based groups, civic groups, civil rights organizations, etc.?
Why is it necessary to develop standard ways to identify non-English speakers or LEP populations for whom you would provide language assistance? Why is it important to track the number of LEP individuals that your agency has served or who have participated in your program or activity:. What are the types of language assistance services available? How do you assess your current staff's ability to provide language assistance services? Understanding how to prioritize the languages that you should consistently accommodate using existing internal structures versus languages where you may need to seek external language assistance services to communicate with LEP individuals:.
Using contracted interpreters or translators when your agency cannot meet the demand for language assistance services:. Monitoring language assistance services provided in your agency:. Establishing a process for LEP individuals to provide feedback if they are denied services because of their lack of English proficiency:. Resource-sharing when translating documents:Identifying and prioritizing documents for translation:. Translating disaster-preparedness or emergency information:. Cross-agency federal resources regarding language assistance:. This includes:.
Select your state or county to identify the number or percentage of LEP persons, download language data, or visually display the maps for presentations. An accessible version of the Language Map App is available here. What are the top five languages that LEP individuals speak in my community? You may view the top five languages that LEP individuals speak at the state, county and judicial district level by selecting the appropriate dropdown menu on the LEP Mapping Tools, available here.
You can choose to represent the top five languages spoken by LEP individuals with a visual map and pie-chart, or a description of the map identifying the top five languages. How many Spanish-speaking LEP individuals are in my community? In many areas of the country, Spanish-speakers form the predominant LEP community. You can choose to represent the number or percent of Spanish-speaking LEP individuals with a visual map and pie-chart, or a description of the map.
We plan to update our data as resources permit. Click here for more information about how the Census and the American Community Survey collects data on language use and English-speaking ability, including the creation of language groups and categories. For more information on the underlying language data, including margins of error, see U. The tools are provided exclusively for informational purposes and we hope that individuals and agencies will use these tools to overcome language barriers. For example:. LEP Resources and Information.
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