Emerging Labor Market Institutions for the Twenty-First Century provides the first in-depth assessment of how effectively labor market institutions are responding to this drastically altered landscape. This important volume provides case studies of new labor market institutions and new directions for existing institutions. The contributors examine the behavior and impact of new organizations that have formed to solve workplace problems and to bolster the position of workers. They also document how unions employ new strategies to maintain their role in the economic system.
While non-union institutions are unlikely to fill the gap left by the decline of unions, the findings suggest that emerging groups and unions might together improve some dimensions of worker well-being. Seller Inventory BTE Seller Inventory Book Description Condition: NEW. For all enquiries, please contact Herb Tandree Philosophy Books directly - customer service is our primary goal.
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View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title Private sector unionism is in decline in the United States. About the Author : Richard B. Review : "The question of the ability of unions to survive in their current form and pursue their current objectives is an important one. At a minimum, readers of this volume will come away with a deeper understanding of how current institutions.
I suspect that the volume accomplishes more, however, identifying some of the more important sources from which future labor market institutions will emerge.follow url
Richard B. Freeman
Buy New Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Stock Image. Published by University of Chicago Press Ultimately most associations address scope of practice, attempting to delineate the expertise and competence of their members from those of related occupations.
Initial entry into a profession is tied at least informally to holding a relevant college degree; this expectation is often a prerequisite for full membership in the relevant association. In addition, successful performance on a licensing exam may be required in order to qualify for the legal right to practice. In some occupations, states establish additional formal requirements that must be met in order to retain licensure.
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Although national standards for a profession are not unusual, licensing and certification requirements normally are the province of state governments and there may be substantial variation. In this regard, professional associations monitor relevant legislation at the federal and state levels, and promote regulations that protect their members right to practice and that uphold quality standards. In those professions where state regulations include continuing education expectations, associations offer programs to help meet those requirements. Professional association members are attracted to events and publications that enhance their own knowledge and earning power by offering access to certification and state of the art information.
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In those jurisdictions with licensing exams and particularly where there are on-going certification requirements, professional development takes on an elevated level of importance. The extent and type of continuing education offered by professional associations are largely determined by these intertwined factors of member interest, requirements for entry into practice, and formal procedures for re-licensure and re-certification. In addition to professional development activities, most associations offer consumer services such as credit cards, home mortgages, financial advice, and travel bookings and discounts.
These services are provided by vendors, and apparently are of only secondary interest to most members. However, associations whose members are in private practice or healthcare report that malpractice liability insurance is a very popular benefit. In the context of the changing nature of professional work described early in the paper, many associations are in the process of expanding the labor market services they provide, particularly those related to job search; employment listings in association newspapers and on web sites, salary profiles of members in specific geographic areas and sub specialties, and career counseling services are all common.
Some engineering associations are in the process of setting up a portable pension plan in response to increased turnover and labor market mobility. Nonetheless, associations are reluctant to interfere in the workplace directly or in any way encroach upon employer authority. In most associations employers are accepted as members and may even encourage their employees to join.
At all levels, associations maintain cordial relations and often close collaboration with key employers, especially regarding professional development programs. With growing concern among professional workers about their labor market status and the changing nature of work, associations are experiencing some pressure to be more proactive.
A few publish professional employment guidelines that amount to standards of employer conduct. Others have attempted to open a dialogue with employers. But these efforts are merely suggestive and have no enforcement mechanism. Even at this, they create problems that most associations would rather avoid. Most professional associations are content to focus on what they do best and serve the professional interests of their individual members. They are reluctant to interfere in the workplace, and for the most part eschew union like activity.
A few associations with large numbers of members who are represented by unions in the public sector actually endorse union representation, although they do not provide collective bargaining services themselves. By in large, though, unions and professional associations continue to operate in different realms. The research on professional associations summarized here confirms their importance in promoting specific professional and technical occupations.
It also points to a clear link between professional development activity and the labor market; indeed, in many occupations continuing education is necessary to maintain status as a licensed practitioner. By all indications, the pressure on these associations to address labor market deficiencies and to defend professional integrity and authority is increasing.
This phenomenon deserves monitoring and further in depth analytical attention. In the broad context of their decline in the private sector, unions must address a number of specific challenges if they are to retain their role as influential economic institutions. Perhaps the most important is to determine how to extend membership and influence in labor markets for professional and technical workers. It is unlikely that demand for union representation among these workers will increase without some affirmative action on the part of labor organizations to reconfigure themselves, either by offering a substantially altered set of services or by adopting a markedly different strategic approach.
Simply appealing to latent demand for traditional union representation is extraordinarily unlikely to produce a groundswell of interest. The statistical analysis presented here facilitates inference regarding the type of labor market institution preferred by professional and technical workers.
To recap the descriptive overview of survey responses, these workers are satisfied with their jobs, display long term attachment to the occupation, and are interested in protecting individual autonomy at work. At the same time they want to enhance their role in decision making, preferably through dialogue with management in a cooperative framework rather than through confrontation.
This combination of attitudes does not neatly match existing institutions. Unions offer voice at work, but promote collective rather than individual influence and often rely on adversarial tactics. Professional associations offer opportunities to enhance individual expertise and promote the profession, often in collaboration with employers, but do not address workplace concerns or promote influence on the job.
Although employee involvement programs seem to fit some of these attitudes, they do not promote occupational concerns and among those surveyed are not viewed as a preferred institutional form. The detailed comparison between those who align with unions and those drawn to professional associations helps guide the analysis. The classification trees and stepwise logistic regressions tell a story on behalf of the professional and technical workers.
Union advocates want to address working conditions, wages and benefits, workloads and job security. They hold relatively negative views towards management, are concerned about fair treatment, and will participate in protests to voice their opinions. Supporters of professional associations, on the other hand, place priority on exercising professional judgment at work and want to protect individual freedom. They are attracted to organizations that provide relevant information and professional development opportunities.
At the same time they do have workplace concerns, but prefer to address them by meeting with management in a cooperative spirit. The characteristics of professional associations described in the preceding section are largely consistent with the factors associated with preference for professional association that emerge from the statistical analysis.
There are a few factors, however, that go beyond the traditional sphere of associations. Especially important is a desire to address workplace concerns directly by meeting with management to discuss policies.
Though the absolute difference is small, it is particularly notable that advocates of professional associations are significantly more interested in meeting with management than are union supporters. Unions do provide mechanisms to address workplace concerns with management, professional associations do not. The message is reinforced by the evidence in one of the statistical models that workers who prefer professional associations are more likely to sign petitions to address workplace concerns.
Although a less assertive stance than the support for protests from union adherents, this willingness to petition the employer again would not fit the culture of most professional associations. Given the active promotion by associations of government intervention in the context of licensing and certification requirements, it is also notable that union advocates are significantly more likely to endorse appeals to government agencies as a way to address workplace concerns.
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