Editor: Alexander Boronin. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Although microorganisms are extremely good in presenting us with an amazing array of valuable products, they usually produce them only in amounts that they need for their own benefit; thus, they tend not to overproduce their metabolites.
Table 1. Open in new tab. Table 2. Direct fermentative production of acyltylosins by genetically-engineered strains of Streptomyces fradiae. Search ADS. Integrating transcriptional and metabolite profiles to direct the engineering of lovastatin-producing fungal strains. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants resistant to catabolite repression. Isolation of an inulinase derepressed mutant of Pichia polymorpha for the production of fructose. Google Preview. Molecular genetic methods for improving secondary-metabolite production in actinomycetes.
Applications of transposition mutagenesis in antibiotic producing streptomyces. A rapid method for isolating mutants of Bacillus subtilis producing increased or decreased amounts of the antibiotic, mycobacillin. Large amplification of a kb DNA fragment carrying two penicillin biosynthetic genes in high penicillin producing strains of Penicillium. Biosynthesis of anthraquinones by interspecies cloning of actinorhodin biosynthesis genes in streptomycetes; clarification of actinorhodin gene functions.
Expression of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC genes in Escherichia coli for acetone production and acetate detoxification. Cloning and heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans of Streptomyces rimosus genes involved in oxytetracycline biosynthesis. Effect of cultivation conditions on the activity of the beromycin producer Streptomyces glomeratus and its spontaneous variants.
Spontaneous variability of Streptomyces glomeratus , a producer of anthracycline antibiotics beromycins. Developmental mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidis , a producer of anthracyclines. Metabolic engineering for microbial production of aromatic amino acids and derived compounds. Directed evolution of an esterase for the stereoselective resolution of a key intermediate in the synthesis of epothilones.
Isolation of yeast with killer activity and its breeding with an industrial baking strain by protoplast fusion. Gene expression analysis by massively parallel signature sequencing MPSS on microbead arrays. An adenosine triphosphate-dependent carbamoylphosphatehydroxymethylcephem O-carbamoyltransferase from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Global negative regulation of Streptomyces coelicolor antibiotic synthesis mediated by an absA -encoded putative transduction system.
Use of protoplast fusion to introduce methionine overproduction into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic engineering of an industrial strain of Saccharopolyspora erythrea for stable expression of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene vhb. Molecular cloning of resistance genes and architecture of a linked gene cluster involved in biosynthesis of oxytetracycline by Streptomyces rimosus. Biosynthesis of phenazine pigments in mutant and wild-type cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolation of deacetoxycephalosporin C from fermentation broths of Penicillium chrysogenum transformants.
Molecular biotechnology in the research and production of recombinant enzymes. New anthracycline glycosides from Micromonospora. Isolation, characterization and biological properties. Purification and characterization of the isopenicillin N synthase of Streptomyces lactandurans.https://inblacgunresul.tk/contactos-con-mujeres-en-espana.php
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Rational selection for improved cephalosporin C productivity in strains of Acremonium chrysogenum. Penicillin production by glucose-derepressed mutants of Penicillium chrysogenum. Resistance, regulatory and production genes for the antibiotic methylenomycin are clustered. Cloning and expression of a DNA sequence conferring cephamycin C production. Expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene in Streptomyces fradiae and its effect on cell growth and synthesis of tylosin. Increased astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma mutants isolated as resistant to diphenylamine.
New classes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3 2 mutants blocked in undecylprodigiosin Red biosynthesis. Stable expression of Aspergillus awamori glucoamylase in distiller's yeast. Metabolic and genetic aspects of the relationship between growth and tetracycline production in Streptomyces aureofaciens. Production of isoleucine by overexpression of ilvA in a Corynebacterium lactofermentum threonine producer.
Increased production of aminoglycosides associated with amplified antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid curing and generation of mutations induced with ethidium bromide in streptomycetes. DNA shuffling of a family of genes from diverse species accelerates directed evolution. Improved green fluorescent protein by molecular evolution using DNA shuffling. Production of cephalosporin intermediates by feeding adipic acid to recombinant Penicillium chrysogenum strains expressing ring expansion activity. Identification of a cyclohexylcarbonyl CoA biosynthetic gene cluster and application in the production of doramectin.
De Maagd. Structure, diversity, and evolution of protein toxins from spore-forming entemopathogenic bacteria. Transcriptional analysis of the Streptomyces glaucescens tetracenomycin biosynthesis gene cluster. Overproduction of the acyl carrier protein component of a type II polyketide synthase stimulates production of tetracenomycin biosynthetic intermediates in Streptomyces glaucescens. The cluster of penicillin biosynthetic genes. Rapid screening for the isolation of mutants of Aspergillus nidulans with increased penicillin yields. Strategies for combinatorial biosynthesis with modular polyketide synthases.
Modular organization of genes required for complex polyketide biosynthesis. Fermentation of crystalline cellulose to ethanol by Klebsiella oxytoca containing chromosomally integrated Zymomonas mobilis genes. Genetic engineering applications in the development of selected industrial enzymes and therapeutic proteins.
Production of hybrid macrolide antibiotic in Streptomyces ambofaciens and Streptomyces lividans by introduction of a cloned carbomycin biosynthetic gene from Streptomyces thermotolerans. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion.
The penicillin gene cluster is amplified in tandem repeats linked by conserved hexanucleotide sequences. Isolation of an intermediate of 2-deoxystreptamine biosynthesis from a mutant of Bacillus circulans. Cloning of the membrane-bound aldehyde dehydrogenase gene of Acetobacter polyoxogenes and improvement of acetic acid production by use of the cloned gene. Characterization of a novel regulatory gene governing the expression of a polyketide synthase gene in Streptomyces ambofaciens. Isolation of spontaneous Streptomyces hygroscopicus phosphate-deregulated mutants hyperproducing its antibiotic complex.
A genetic approach to the biosynthesis of the rifamycin-chromophore in Nocardia mediterranei. Isolation of regulatory mutants of the aspartic and pyruvic acid families and their effect on antibiotic production in Streptomyces lipmanii. Isolation and structure of a new antibiotic, indolizomycin, produced by a strain SK obtained by interspecies fusion treatment.
The kb linear plasmid pPZG of Streptomyces rimosus and its interactions with the chromosome. Conversion of glucose to 2-keto-L-gulonate, an intermediate in L-ascorbate synthesis by a recombinant strain of Erwinia citreus. Expression of the Escherichia coli catabolic threonine dehydratase in Corynebacterium glutamicum and its effect on isoleucine production. Expression of the penDE gene of Penicillium chrysogenum encoding isopenicillin N acyltransferase in Cephalosporium acremonium. The cefG gene of Cephalosporium acremonium is linked to the cefEF gene and encodes a deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase closely related to homoserine O-acetyltransferase.
Expression of the cefG gene is limiting for cephalosporin biosynthesis in Acremonium chrysogenum.
On the role of L-leucine in the control of bacitracin formation by Bacillus licheniformis. A macrolide 3-O-acyltransferase gene from the midecamycin-producing species Streptomyces mycarofaciens. Cloning, characterization and overexpression of the phytase-encoding gene phyA of Aspergillus niger. Construction of an L-isoleucine overproducing strain of Escherichia coli K A novel method for improving Streptomyces coelicolor A3 2 for production of actinorhodin by introduction of rpsL encoding ribosomal protein S12 mutations conferring resistance to streptomycin.
L-Lysine production in continuous culture of an L-lysine hyperproducing mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Genetic engineering of Streptomyces to create hybrid antibiotics. Acquisition of certain streptomycin resistant str mutations enhances antibiotic production in bacteria. Novel approach for improving the production of antibiotic-producing strains by inducing combined resistant mutations. Cloning and analysis of a DNA fragment stimulating avermectin production in various Streptomyces avermitilis strains. Expresssion of Streptomyces peucetius genes for doxorubicin resistance and aklavinone hydroxylase in Streptomyces galilaeus ATCC and production of a hybrid aclacinomycin.
Improvement of kasugamycin-producing strain by agar piece method and the prototroph method. Tryptophan production by transport mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Hyperproduction of tryptophan by Corynebacterium glutamicum with the modified pentose pathway. Transposon mutagenesis by Tn and applications with avermectin-producing Streptomyces avermitilis. Genetic engineering of ethanol production in Escherichia coli.
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Improvement of industry-applied rifamycin B-producing strain, Amycolatopsis mediterranei , by rational screening. Production of teichoplanin by valine-analogue resistant mutant strains of Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. Expanding the scope of aromatic polyketides by combinatorial biosynthesis. Manipulation of macrolide ring size by directed mutagenesis of a modular polyketide synthase. Biosynthetic studies with the blocked mutants of Micromonospora sagamiensis. Highly efficient mutagenesis of Claviceps purpurea by using protoplasts. Modulation of polyketide synthase activity by accessory proteins during lovastatin biosynthesis.
Genetic construction and functional analysis of hybrid polyketide synthases containing heterologous acyl carrier proteins. A combined genetic and physical map of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3 2 chromosome. Mutagenesis of Micromonospora rosaria by using protoplasts and mycelial fragments. New anthracycline metabolites produced by the aklavinone hydroxylase gene in Streptomyces galilaeus ATCC Citric acid production by 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants of Aspergillus niger. Elucidation of structure of novel macrolide antibiotics produced by mutant strains of Streptomyces fradiae.
Selective accumulation of unsulfated carbapenem antibiotics by sulfate transport-negative mutants of Streptomyces griseus subsp. Production of riboflavin by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. Mutagenesis of OA carbapenem-producing blocked mutants and the biosynthesis of carbapenems. Overproduction of aspartase of Escherichia coli K by molecular cloning. Influence of threonine exporters on threonine production in Escherichia coli. Advances in directed protein evolution by recursive genetic recombination.
Improvement of Streptomyces strains by the regeneration of protoplasts. Global expression profiling and physiological characterization of Corynebacterium glutamicum grown in the presence of L-valine. Effect of a global regulatory gene, afsR2 , from Streptomyces lividans on avermectin production in Streptomyces avermitilis. Threonine dehydratases in different strains of Streptomyces fradiae. Production of teicoplanin by a mutant of Actinoplanes teicomyceticus.
Multistep bioconversion of deoxodihydro, deepoxy, dehydrorosaranolide to hydroxyo-mycinosyldeoxodihydro, deepoxy-rosaramicin. Interspecific protoplast fusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces mellis. Kinetic analysis of growth and xanthan gum production with Xanthomonas campestris on sucrose, using sequentially consumed nitrogen sources. A method for random mutagenesis of a defined DNA segment using a modified polymerase chain reaction.
Biotin biosynthetic pathway in a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli overexpressing bio genes. Development of novel vaccines using DNA shuffling and screening strategies. The mithramycin gene cluster of Streptomyces argillaceus contains a positive regulatory gene and two repeated DNA sequences that are located at both ends of the cluster.
Enhancing the atom economy of polyketide biosynthetic processes through metabolic engineering. Flux analysis of glucose metabolism in Rhizopus oryzae for the purpose of increasing lactate yields. Glycerol conversion to 1,3 propanediol by Clostridium pasteurianum. Reverse engineering of industrial pharmaceutical-producing actinomycete strains using DNA microarrays. Creating multiple-crossover DNA libraries independent of sequence identity. The Aspergillus nidulans npeA locus consists of three contiguous genes required for penicillin biosynthesis. Effects of enhanced lysine epsilon-aminotransferase activity on cephamycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces clavuligerus.
Molecular characterization and analysis of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the antitumor antibiotic mitomycin C from Streptomyces lavendulae NRRL Isolation of mutants deregulated in phosphate control of candicidin biosynthesis. Studies on the biosynthesis of erythromycins. Isolation of an intermediate glycoside, 3-alpha-L-mycarosylerythronolide B. Isolation and structure of a biosynthetic intermediate, 6-deoxyerythronolide B. Further improvement of D-biotin production by a recombinant strain of Serratia marcescens.
Cloning, characterization, and use in strain improvement of the Cephalosporium acremonium gene cefG encoding acetyl transferase. Metabolic engineering of carotenoid accumulation in Escherichia coli by modulation of the isoprenoid precursor pool with expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate synthase. New antibiotics from genetically engineered actinomycetes. Gene transfer and transposition mutagenesis in Streptomyces roseosporus. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC for increased solvent production by enhancement of acetone formation enzyme activities using a synthetic operon.
Improved erythromycin production in a genetically engineered industrial strain of Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Cloning of the Bacillus subtilis IMP dehydrogenase gene and its application to increased production of guanosine. Identification and characterization of two contiguous operons required for aerobactin transport and biosynthesis in Vibrio mimicus. Isolation of tetracenomycin C non-producing Streptomyces glaucescens mutants. Mutational biosynthesis of a new antibiotic, streptomutin A, by an idiotroph of Streptomyces griseus. Galactose induced colonial dissociation in Streptomyces aureofaciens.
L-Malic acid formation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae amplified for fumarase. Nucleotide sequences and expression of genes from Streptomyces purpurescens that cause the production of new anthracyclines in Streptomyces galilaeus. Optimization of ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering of the ammonium assimilation.
Blocked mutants in the biosynthesis of carbapenem antibiotics from Streptomyces griseus subsp. A novel methodology employing Corynebacterium glutamicum genome information to generate a new L-lysine-producing mutant. Enhanced expression of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase causes overproduction of actinorhodin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3 2. Resistance to paromomycin is conferred by rpsL mutations, accompanied by an enhanced antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3 2. Variety of hybrid characters among recombinants obtained by interspecific protoplast fusion in streptomycetes.
Selective production of specific components of avermectins in Streptomyces avermitilis. Cloning and expression of daunorubicin biosynthesis genes from Streptomyces peucetius and S. Overproduction from a cellulase gene with a high guanosine-plus-cytosine content in Escherichia coli. Fermentation, isolation and biological activity. Ethanol production of genetically modified strains of Saccharomyces.
Technological Microbiology: Development and Applications
Genome shuffling of Lactobacillus for improved acid tolerance. Sub-unit assembly in the biosynthesis of neomycin. A study on transamidinase activity with respect to streptomycin biosynthesis. Physical characterization of plasmids determining synthesis of a microcin which inhibits methionine synthesis in Escherichia coli. Genetic engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the commercial production of riboflavin. Biosynthesis of complex polyketides in a metabolically engineered strain of Escherichia coli. Metabolic engineering of Candida tropicalis for the production of long-chain dicarboxylic acids.
Intergeneric hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces fermentati obtained by protoplast fusion. Overproduction of 2-ketoisovalerate and monensin production by regulatory mutants of Streptomyces cinnamonensis resistant to 2-ketobutyrate and amino acids. Regulatory mutants of Streptomyces cinnamonensis producing monensin A. Novel enzyme activities and functional plasticity revealed by recombining highly homologous enzymes. Histidine regulatory mutants in Salmonella typhimurium II.
Histidine regulatory mutants having altered histidyl-tRNA synthetase. Genetic recombination in Micromonospora rosaria by protoplast fusion.
Pathway analysis and metabolic engineering in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Cloning of genes coding for L-sorbose and L-sorbosone dehydrogenases from Gluconobacter oxydans and microbial production of 2-keto-gulonate, a precursor of L-ascorbic acid, in a recombinant G. Improvement of a d-biotin-hyperproducing recombinant strain of Serratia marcescens.
Increased citric acid production by mutants of Aspergillus niger with increased glycolytic capacity. Construction of a novel hydroxyproline-producing recombinant Escherichia coli by introducing a proline 4-hydroxylase gene. Preparation of four new antibiotics from a mutant of Streptomyces fradiae. Amino acid aminotransferases in an amino acid-producing bacterium, Brevibacterium flavum. Molecular cloning of exo-cellobiohydrolase I derived from Trichoderma reesei strain L Characterization of Schwanniomyces castelli mutants with increased productivity of amylases.
Induced quantitative variation for penicillin titre in clonal populations of Aspergillus nidulans. Genetic engineering of a beta-lactam antibiotic biosynthetic pathway in filamentous fungi. Amplification of the isopenicillin N synthetase gene in a strain of Penicillium chrysogenum producing high levels of penicillin. Nucleotide sequence and expression of Enterobacter aerogenes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene in brewers' yeast.
Enhancement of stability and activity of phospholipase A 1 in organic solvents by directed evolution. Rational design of peptide antibiotics by targeted replacement of bacterial and fungal domains. Three biochemical processes using Ashbya gossypii, Candida famata , or Bacillus subtilis compete with chemical riboflavin production.
Exploiting biological complexity for strain improvement through systems biology. Expression of polyketide biosynthesis and regulatory genes in heterologous streptomycetes. Engineering the aveC gene to enhance the ratio of doramectin to its CHC-B2 analogue produced in Streptomyces avermitilis. Multivitamin production in Lactococcus lactis using metabolic engineering. These make a more uniform product but may not always be the key species influencing flavour generation. Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus are an important group of bacteria used in the dairy, fermented meat and fermented vegetable industries.
These produce lactic acid as an end product from glucose but, depending on the subspecies of L. In some products, specific species are used together to produce desirable product characteristics. Both produce lactic acid, but together this is improved in comparison to each alone as the Lactobacillus liberates valine through proteolysis, which stimulates growth of the streptococci, and the Streptococcus produces formate needed by the lactobacilli.
Acetaldehyde and diacetyl are the important flavour volatiles produced giving the typical yogurt flavour, with the Lactobacillus being the primary producer of the former. The absence of an enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in both species, which would convert the acetaldehyde to ethanol, means the final product is yogurt flavoured rather than being alcoholic!
In fermented meats like salami, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus are often added with the lactic acid-producing starter culture. Unusually, these organisms are not very acid tolerant and so do not grow once the pH starts to drop. However, the enzymes they produce are more tolerant and so essentially the bacteria act as bags of enzymes which contribute to fat and protein breakdown, and hence the production of flavour compounds.
The other main groups important in flavour production are yeasts and moulds. Yeasts are of course well known for their alcohol production, but the proteolytic and lipolytic activities of particular species produce a range of flavour compounds. The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica breaks down tributyrin, resulting in butanoic acid which has a cheese-like odour, and this is believed to be an important part of the flavour development in a number of cheese varieties.
Cheeses are a good example of a product where the development of sensory characteristics is very dependent on the balance of micro-organisms present. Following the initial fermentation by a starter culture, cheeses undergo a ripening period, the length of which varies with cheese variety. For example, in Stilton cheese, Lactococcus lactis and P.
As indicated above , Penicillium is added to allow development of typical blue cheese flavours, mainly through the production of methyl ketones. In model cheese studies using controlled flora composition, the inclusion of Y. Thus, the full product characteristics desired by the consumer may rely on this yeast being present. However, this is a species which is present only through chance introduction during processing and hence its presence could be variable from batch to batch, leading to variability in the product.
Many micro-organisms are thus beneficial in contributing to the production of flavour characteristics in many products we consume. However, it should always be remembered that context is key; diacetyl production in dairy products is desirable: in beer it is an off-flavour! That well-known yeast extract product effect! Adams, M. It is mass produced and commonly administered orally.
Lastly, another example of an antibiotic which is classified as a secondary metabolite is bacitracin. Bacitracin, derived from organisms classified under Bacillus subtilis , is an antibiotic commonly used a topical drug. Bacitracin is synthesized in nature as a nonribosomal peptide synthetase that can synthesize peptides; however, it is used in the clinic as an antibiotic.
Erythromycin tablets : Erythromycin is an example of a secondary metabolite used as an antibiotic and mass produced within industrial microbiology. Large-scale fermentations are key to the production of numerous products ranging from food to pharmaceutical items. Describe fermentation and its applications to produce food, alcoholic beverages, fuel and recombinant products such as insulin. Fermentation includes the processes by which energy is extracted from the oxidation of organic compounds.
The oxidation of organic compounds occurs by utilizing an endogenous electron acceptor to transfer electrons released from nutrients to molecules obtained from the breakdown of these same nutrients. Common types of fermentation : These are common types of fermentation utilized in eukaryotic cells.
There are various types of fermentation which occur at the industrial level such as ethanol fermentation and fermentation processes used to produce food and wine. The ability to utilize the fermentation process in anaerobic conditions is critical to organisms which demand ATP production by glycolysis. Fermentation can be carried out in aerobic conditions as well, as in the case of yeast cells which prefer fermentation to oxidative phosphorylation.
The following is a brief overview of a few types of the large-scale fermentations utilized by industries in production creation. Ethanol fermentation is used to produce ethanol for use in food, alcoholic beverages, and both fuel and industry. The process of ethanol fermentation occurs when sugars are converted into cellular energy. The sugars which are most often used include glucose, fructose, and sucrose. These sugars are converted into cellular energy and produce both ethanol and carbon dioxide as waste products.
Yeast is the most commonly used organism to produce ethanol via the fermentation process for beer, wine, and alcoholic drink production. As stated previously, despite abundant amounts of oxygen which may be present, yeast prefer to utilize fermentation. Hence, the use of yeast on a large-scale to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide occurs in an anaerobic environment. The ethanol which is produced can then be used in bread production. Yeast will convert the sugars present in the dough to cellular energy and produce both ethanol and carbon dioxide in the process.
The ethanol will evaporate and the carbon dioxide will expand the dough. In regards to alcohol production, yeast will induce fermentation and produce ethanol. Specifically, in wine-making, the yeast will convert the sugars present in the grapes. In beer and additional alcohol such as vodka or whiskey, the yeast will convert the sugars produced as a result of the conversion of grain starches to sugar by amylase.
Additionally, yeast fermentation is utilized to mass produce ethanol which is added to gasoline. The major source of sugar utilized for ethanol production in the US is currently corn; however, crops such as sugarcane or sugar beets can be used as well. Fermentation in grapes : This is a photograph of grapes undergoing fermentation during the wine-making process.
Fermentation is also utilized in the mass production of various recombinant products. These recombinant products include numerous pharmaceuticals such as insulin and hepatitis B vaccine. Insulin, produced by the pancreas, serves as a central regulator of carbohydrate and fat metabolism and is responsible for the regulation of glucose levels in the blood. Insulin is used medically to treat individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Specifically, individuals with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce insulin and those with type 2 diabetes often develop insulin resistance where the hormone is no longer effective.
The increase in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus has resulted in an increase in demand for external insulin. The mass production of insulin is performed by utilizing both recombinant DNA technology and fermentation processes. The proinsulin is then isolated via disruption of the cell and purified. There is further enzymatic reactions that occur to then convert the proinsulin to crude insulin which can be further altered for use as a medicinal compound. An additional recombinant product that utilizes the fermentation process to be produced is the hepatitis B vaccine.
The hepatitis B vaccine is developed to specifically target the hepatitis B virus infection. The creation of this vaccine utilizes both recombinant DNA technology and fermentation. A gene, HBV, which is specific for hepatitis B virus, is inserted into the genome of the organism yeast. The yeast is used to grow the HBV gene in large amounts and then harvested and purified.
The process of fermentation is utilized to grow the yeast, thus promoting the production of large amounts of the HBV protein which was genetically added to the genome. Skip to main content. Industrial Microbiology. Search for:.
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