VLSI began in the s when MOS integrated circuit chips were widely adopted, enabling complex semiconductor and telecommunication technologies to be developed. The microprocessor and memory chips are VLSI devices.
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The history of the transistor dates to the s when several inventors attempted devices that were intended to control current in solid-state diodes and convert them into triodes. Success came after World War II, when the use of silicon and germanium crystals as radar detectors led to improvements in fabrication and theory.
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Scientists who had worked on radar returned to solid-state device development. With the invention of the first transistor at Bell Labs in , the field of electronics shifted from vacuum tubes to solid-state devices. With the small transistor at their hands, electrical engineers of the s saw the possibilities of constructing far more advanced circuits.
However, as the complexity of circuits grew, problems arose. A complex circuit like a computer was dependent on speed. If the components were large, the wires interconnecting them must be long. The electric signals took time to go through the circuit, thus slowing the computer. The invention of the integrated circuit by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce solved this problem by making all the components and the chip out of the same block monolith of semiconductor material. The circuits could be made smaller, and the manufacturing process could be automated.
This led to the idea of integrating all components on a single-crystal silicon wafer, which led to small-scale integration SSI in the early s, and then medium-scale integration MSI in the late s. The first semiconductor chips held two transistors each. Subsequent advances added more transistors, and as a consequence, more individual functions or systems were integrated over time. The first integrated circuits held only a few devices, perhaps as many as ten diodes , transistors , resistors and capacitors , making it possible to fabricate one or more logic gates on a single device.
Now known retrospectively as small-scale integration SSI , improvements in technique led to devices with hundreds of logic gates, known as medium-scale integration MSI. Further improvements led to large-scale integration LSI , i. Current technology has moved far past this mark and today's microprocessors have many millions of gates and billions of individual transistors.
At one time, there was an effort to name and calibrate various levels of large-scale integration above VLSI. Terms like ultra-large-scale integration ULSI were used. But the huge number of gates and transistors available on common devices has rendered such fine distinctions moot. Terms suggesting greater than VLSI levels of integration are no longer in widespread use. In , billion-transistor processors became commercially available. Current designs, unlike the earliest devices, use extensive design automation and automated logic synthesis to lay out the transistors, enabling higher levels of complexity in the resulting logic functionality.
Certain high-performance logic blocks like the SRAM static random-access memory cell, are still designed by hand to ensure the highest efficiency.
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Structured VLSI design is a modular methodology originated by Carver Mead and Lynn Conway for saving microchip area by minimizing the interconnect fabrics area. This is obtained by repetitive arrangement of rectangular macro blocks which can be interconnected using wiring by abutment. An example is partitioning the layout of an adder into a row of equal bit slices cells. In complex designs this structuring may be achieved by hierarchical nesting. Structured VLSI design had been popular in the early s, but lost its popularity later because of the advent of placement and routing tools wasting a lot of area by routing , which is tolerated because of the progress of Moore's Law.
When introducing the hardware description language KARL in the mid' s, Reiner Hartenstein coined the term "structured VLSI design" originally as "structured LSI design" , echoing Edsger Dijkstra 's structured programming approach by procedure nesting to avoid chaotic spaghetti-structured program. Laboratorio di Elettronica. Gruppo 3. Sistemi Dinamici e Turbolenza.
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VLSI research papers IEEE PAPER
Sintassi base. Basic electronics and microelectronics. Semiconductor devices. MOS transistor physics and modelling. SPICE and circuit simulation. Signal processing, noise and filtering. Analog and mixed-mode IC design. Low-power and low-voltage IC design. RF microelectronics. PLLs and SC circuits. DC-DC converters. Digital electronics and logic design. Verilog and VHDL programming. Digital synthesis. VLSI design and layout. FPGA programming. PCB design. Radiation detection and nuclear electronics.
Silicon detectors. CAD scripting and programming. Desoer, Basic Circuit Theory. Sah, Fundamentals of solid state electronics , World Scientific, Thomas, A. Rosa and G. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics [x] 1st ed. Sicard, S.
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Forrest M. Mims, Getting Started in Electronics. Taur and T. Enz and E. Farid N.
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Najm, Circuit Simulation. Sedra, G. Roberts and K. Gregorian and G.
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Temes, Analog MOS integrated circuits for signal processing. Witte, K. Makinwa, J. Moreira, Essential of error-control coding [x]. Sansen, Analog Design Essentials [x].
Gray, P. Hurst, S. Lewis and R. Laker and W. Schneider and C. Tajalli and Y. Wang, B. Calhoun and A. Eschauzier and J. Wu, J.
Related VLSI Circuit Layout: Theory and Design
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